C
Legal definitions for terms from Cabotage to Certificate of Independent Legal Advice

Cabotage
Trade transit of a vessel along the coast (coastal trading), from one port to another within the territorial limits of a single nation.
Cadastre
French: a database of real property data within a certain jurisdiction.
Cadaver
A dead human body.
Cadaverine
A chemical substance formed by the decomposition of organic matter.
Calderbank Letter
A species of settlement offer delivered in the form of a letter and which can be used in the event that it is rejected and subsequent to trial or hearing of the litigation which results in terms similar to the rejected offer, costs are spoken to.
Calendar Day
In some jurisdictions, a period of time from midnight to midnight. In others, a full 24 hour period (eg. 3 am to 3 am).
Calendar Month
A period from a specified day in one month to the day numerically corresponding to that day in the following month, less one.
Calendar Quarter
A period of three consecutive months starting on one of January 1, April 1, July 1 or October 1.
Calendar Week
Depending on the context, either a period of time from midnight, Saturday to following midnight Saturday, or any period of seven consecutive days.
Calendar Year
A period from January 1 to December 31.
Call For Tenders
A property owner's invitation, sometimes at large, sometimes to a select group, for bids to complete a particular project.
Call To The Bar
The official moment that an individual is sworn or entered into a law society or state bar or court and thereafter licensed to practise law in that jurisdiction.
Calvin's Case, 1572
A case which favorably resolved the issue as to whether alien-born persons could exercises certain rights of naturalized English subjects.
Calvo Clause
Mexican real estate law that requires that any action challenging the title of real property situated in Mexico must be litigated in Mexico and exclusively governed by Mexican law.
Cancel
To terminate; to put an end to.
Cancer
An aggregation of outlaw cells with the propensity to migrate and grow in size and in the territory covered and the definite destruction of the body.
Candy
Crystallized sugar more fully called sugar candy; also any confection made of, or so encrusted.
Canon Law
The law of the Church; based on religious beliefs.
Capacity
The power to acquire and assert legal rights.
Capital Asset
A designation of an asset so that profit or loss can be tracked for tax purposes; generally, all and any asset belonging to a tax-payer except those specifically excluded.
Capital Expenditure
A once and for all expense to provide an enduring benefit to a capital asset.
Capital Gain
The eventual, net proceeds of sale of an asset, subtracting the original purchase price from the sale price.
Capital Loss
The amount of monies lost when disposing of an asset, the difference between the higher purchase cost and the subsequent but lower amount received when the asset was sold.
Capital Offence
A criminal offence for which the punishment, or one of the punishments, is death, capital punishment.
Capital Punishment
The most severe of all sentences: that of death.
Capitulation
Abandonment by one belligerent to another, of a defined place, usually by way of a negotiated arrangement.
Capricious
A judicial decision which is not based on any apparent reason.
Cardholder Agreement
A contract presented by a credit card company or through an agent, usually a bank, setting out the terms of the consumer's use of and liability for the credit card.
Carriage
The transportation, by carriers, of people or goods for free or for reward.
Carriage Motion
A motion made to a court of law during duplicative class action proceedings to defer to a predominant proceeding, staying others.
Carrier
Persons who carry goods or passengers for others, either freely or for consideration.
Carrier's Case
A monumental 1473 English case which extended the offence of theft (then called larceny) to include a carrier of goods who, initially lawfully in possession, converts goods to his own use.
Car Ringing
The movement of stolen vehicles through to sale to unsuspecting new purchasers.
Carry
The observation or declaration by the chair of a meeting that a member’s motion has passed or attained the requisite majority vote, and is thus converted into a resolution of the whole meeting or organization.
Cartel
An agreement between two or more merchants to create or control a monopoly, to lessen or prevent competition.
Cartoon
A normally humourous and pictorial parody which by caricature, analogy or ludicrous juxtaposition sharpens the public view of a contemporary event, political or social trend.
Case Law
The entire collection of published legal decisions of the courts which, because of stare decisis, contributes a large part of the legal rules which apply in modern society.
Casus Foederis
Latin: treaty event.
Cataplexy
A condition in which the patient loses muscle control and collapses.
Cat's Paw
A supervisor who, rather than genuinely re-assess a subordinate's decision to discipline an employee, official cover notwithstanding, merely rubber stamps it.
Causa Causans
The real, effective cause of damage.
Causa Proxima Et Non Remota Spectatur
Latin: the immediate, not the remote cause, is to be considered.
Causa Sine Qua Non
An intervening cause of loss which, though not direct, may nonetheless contribute to the loss.
Causation
The cause and effect relationship between an act or omission and damages alleged in a tort or personal injury action.
Caveat
Latin: let him beware. A formal warning.
Caveat Emptor
Latin: buyer beware.
Cease and Desist Letter
A letter which advises a person to stop (cease and desist) using specified legal rights which are asserted by another.
Centrocon Clause
A clause in an arbitration agreement which bars a claim if not made in writing and an arbitrator appointed within a set time frame.
Certainty of Terms
A legal requirement of a valid offer to contract; that it must be precise and definite in order to be subject to acceptance.
Certificate of Independent Legal Advice
A document that attests that a person has received legal advice on a proposed contract, from a lawyer not associated with the other contracting party.

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