I Legal definitions for terms from Idda to International Will Pages:idd to int int to iss Idda Muslim law: The mandatory waiting period before a divorce created by talaq becomes effective. Identity Theft The wrongful taking or using another person's identifying information for the purpose of fraud or other criminal activity. Idiot A person incapable of managing his person or his affairs from birth. Idolatry The worship of images or icons or even intangible things. Ignorance of the Law A mistake of law in relation to a person's rights or responsibilities. Ignorantia Juris Non Excusat Latin: ignorance of the law is no excuse. Ijtihad A further proposed source of divine Muslim Law; Ijtihad, though, is contrived on an as -needed basis (pronounced) by Sharia law scholars, or groups of scholars. Illegitimate Child A child born out of wedlock Imbecile An individual with a lack of normal mental ability but not complete or absolute. Immovable Land and fixtures thereto, civil law term. Immunity An exemption that a person enjoys from the normal operation of the law such as a legal duty or liability, either criminal or civil. Impaired A deterioration of an individual’s judgment and decrease in his or her’s physical ability. Used primarily in criminal law; driving under the influence of alcohol or disability law in regards to a person’s physical or mental impairment. Impanel Also, "empanel"; the official call to duty of a jury, usually as called by the clerk of the Court in which the jury is to act, and just before the jurors are sworn in. Imperialism The absorption of subject states, usually for the purpose of harvesting raw materials, into a federalistic political organization. Implied Trust A trust that is imposed by law onto certain situations either by presuming an intention of the participants to create a trust, or simply because of the facts at hand. Implied Undertaking Rule A party to whom documents are produced within litigation will not use them for collateral or ulterior purposes. Imputation of Payments A civil law term: a system that allocates monies received from a debtor who has more than one debt and who has not, with the payment, specified to the creditor to which debt the monies are applied. In Absentia Latin: in the absence of. In Camera A closed and private session of Court or some other deliberating body. Incapacitated An individual who lacks the ability to meet essential requirements for physical health, safety, or self-care. Incest The crime of sexual contact with a blood relative usually including a parent, child, sibling, grandparent or grandchild. Inchmaree Clause A standard clause in maritime insurance contracts covering risk of events not directly linked to perils at sea such as, but not necessarily limited to, loading accidents. Inchoate A legal right or entitlement that is in progress and is neither ripe, vested nor perfected. Inchoate Offence Acts which are criminal even though they precede harmful conduct. Income Tax A mandatory payment imposed on residents of a pro rated portion of their income as a contribution towards the costs of government services. Incompetency An individual who has a significant risk of personal harm based upon an inability to adequately provide for nutrition, health, housing, or physical safety. Incorporeal Legal rights which are intangible such as copyrights or patents. Incorporeal Hereditament An intangible right which is attached to property and which is inheritable. Increased Costs A term of statute of costs which are in excess of party and party costs and which may equal or come close to completely indemnify the successful litigant. Indefeasible A right or title in property that cannot be made void, defeated or canceled by any past event, error or omission in the title. In Defense of Life A justification for self-defense. Indemnity Contract with a third-party to perform another's obligations if called upon to do so by the third-party, whether the other has defaulted or not. Independent Contractor A person hired by another not as an employee but, rather, pursuant to a contract for service where the engaging party does not supervise or control the detail of the work, and where the party engaged remains self-employed. Independent Source Doctrine (USA) Evidence initially discovered during an unlawful search, but later obtained independently through activities untainted by the illegality, may be admitted into evidence Indian Nomenclature selected by Canada and USA to refer to and define their aboriginal or indigenous people. Indian Canon A principle of statutory interpretation that statutes should be construed liberally in favor of Indians. Indian Child (USA) Any unmarried individual under 18 who is either (a) a member of an Indian tribe or (b) is eligible for membership in an tribe and is the biological child of a member of a tribe. Indian Country (USA) Land within an Indian reservation and all such other dependent Indian territories, and all land acquired by Indians in which tribal and federal laws normally apply and state laws do not. Indian Law Treaties, statutes, executive orders, court decisions and administrative actions defining and implementing the relationship between national, state or proivincial governments, and Indian tribes and individuals. Indian Title A right of exclusive occupancy in land by Indians. Indian Tribe A body of Indians of the same or a similar race, united in a community under one leadership or government, and inhabiting a particular though sometimes ill-defined territory. Indictable Offence An offence which the government can opt to cause trial by a more formal process than by summary process. Indictment The formal document by which the state sets out the claim that a person has committed a crime. Indigenous Native to a particular territory. Indigent A poor person; not penniless but in need and who has no financial support from any other. Indirect Contempt Contempt of court which occurs not in the presence of a judge acting judicially, but which tend to degrade the court or to obstruct or embarrass the administration of justice by the court. Indirect Tax The passing on of a tax or duty by the person who first pays it, through subsequent transactions. Inducing Breach of Contract An intentional, economic tort; knowingly and intentionally procuring the breach of a contract, without lawful justification, causing damage to another party to the contract. Industrial Design A new product or packaging design, or some such ornamental feature, and eligible for intellectual property law exclusive-use protection. Industrial Relations Processes related to the world of work such as the organization of work, employment contracts, human resource management, employment relations, conflict management and employee attitudes and behaviors at work. Ineffective Assistance In USA constitutional law, grounds for reversing a criminal law judicial determination where relevant legal advice was deficient and prejudicial. In Facie Contempt Contempt of court that occurs in the face of the Court. Infanticide Murder of an infant soon after its birth. Infarction A sudden reduction or stoppage of blood flow. In Fictione Juris Semper Aequitas Existit Latin: With legal fictions, equity always exists. Information Canada: the charging document in a criminal prosecution. Informed Consent The consent of a capable patient to treatment after disclosure of the risks. In haec verba Latin: verbatim. Inherent Jurisdiction The residual, automatic and ex officio authority of a court of law to regulate proceedings before it including punishing contempt. Inhibition A legal procedure to prevent a debtor from compromising property upon which a creditor holds a charge. Injunction A court order that prohibits a party from doing something (restrictive injunction) or compels them to do something (mandatory injunction). In Jure Non Remota Causa Sed Proxima Spectatur Latin: In law the near cause is looked to, not the remote one. In Limine Latin: at the beginning or on the threshold. In Loco Parentis A person who, though not the natural parent, has acted as a parent to a child and may thus be liable to legal obligations as if he/she were a natural parent. Inner Temple One of four Inns of the Court, self-regulating associations of barristers in England and Wales. Innocent Passage A term of international law referring to a ship or aircraft's right to enter and pass through another's territory so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the other state. Innominate Terms An implied term of a contract which is neither classed as a condition or a warranty but somewhere in between; an intermediary or innominate term. Inns of Chancery Smaller boarding schools for apprenticing law students and serving as preparatory schools for the Inns of the Court up to about 1590. Inns of Court The several professional associations of barristers, to which all barristers in England or Wales must belong to one, to wit, Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn or Inner Temple. Innuendo In defamation, the inferential, inherent or secondary meaning of words. In Pari Delicto Latin: both parties are equally at fault. In Personam Latin: regarding a person; a right, action, judgment or entitlement that is attached to a specific person(s). In Rem Latin: regarding a thing; proprietary in nature; a right or judgment related to the use or ownership of an item of property. Insanity Disorder which impairs the human mind and prevents distinguishing between actions that are right or wrong. Inscrutable Fault A judicial finding that a fault has occurred but the court is unable to locate the source, to pinpoint a tort-feasor. Insider Trading Participation by corporate officers, directors or employees in the trade of a stock based on confidential or privileged corporate information, knowing that information to be confidential, and seeking thereby to acquire profits or avoid losses on the stock market. Insolence Insulting a supervisor at the workplace or during the tenure of an employment contract. Insolvent A person not able to pay his or her debts as they become due. Insubordination Willful failure to obey a supervisor's lawful orders. Insurance Where a persons agrees, for consideration, to pay a certain amount on the occurrence of a specified event. Intangible Property Incorporeal property; personal property that lacks a physical existence. Intellectual Property Ethereal property; of the mind, intangible, with no corporeal existence, though capable of being expressed in a tangible medium. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress The malicious and outrageous causation of severe emotional distress. Intentional Infliction of Nervous Shock A wilfully false statement that comes to and causes mental anguish to another. Intentional Tort Torts actionable upon evidence of an intent to cause harm on another, such as assault, trespass, false imprisonment, private nuisance, defamation or invasion of privacy. Inter Alia Latin: 'among other things', 'for example' or 'including'. Interculturalism A government policy regarding the relationship between a cultural majority and cultural minorities, which emphasizes integration by exchange and interaction. Interest Reipublicae Ut Sit Finis Litium Latin: in the interest of society as a whole, litigation must come to an end. Interim Order A temporary court order; intended to be of limited duration, usually just until the court has had an opportunity of hearing the full case and make a final order. Interjurisdictional Immunity The purported inability of the Canadian Federal government to legislate in an area assigned by the Constitution to the Provincial government, and vice versa. Interlineation An addition of something to a document after it has been signed. Interlocutory Housekeeping, procedural proceedings taken during the course of, and incidental to a trial. Interlocutory Injunction A temporary injunction; which lasts only until the end of the trial during which the injunction was sought. Interloper A person who, without legal right, runs a business (eg. without mandatory licenses), or who wrongfully interferes or intercepts another's business. International Commercial Arbitration A commercial dispute subject to arbitration and in which a significant international elements exists such as, for example, the head offices of the disputants are different countries or the performance of the underlying contract is in a foreign state. International Convention on Salvage, 1989 An international treaty which standardizes, for signatories, the rules related to salvage and the compensation thereof. International Crime Crimes which affect the peace or safety of more than one state or which are so reprehensible in nature as to justify the intervention of international agencies in the investigation and prosecution thereof. International Criminal Law Offences made criminal in international law and related matters such as jurisdiction, courts and tribunals. International Law A combination of treaties and customs which regulates the conduct of states amongst themselves, and persons who trade or have legal relationships which involve the jurisdiction of more than one state. International Will A will which which is valid if meeting the requirements of an international wills statute and notwithstanding deficiencies in form as regards to domestic wills. Always looking up definitions? Save time with our search provider (modern browsers only) If you find an error or omission in Duhaime's Law Dictionary, or if you have suggestion for a legal term, we'd love to hear from you!