Duhaime's Law Dictionary

J
Legal definitions for terms and concepts beginning with J

Jactitation
A false boast designed to increase standing at the expense of another.
Jald
Muslim law: flogging, a punishment for some crimes.
Jay Walking
Violation of traffic regulations, particularly when crossing a street or road other than at an intersection, or failure to used designated pedestrian crosswalks or to obey pedestrian traffic signals.
J. D.
Abbreviation for juris doctor or doctor of jurisprudence and the formal name given to the university law degree in the United States.
Jetsam
Things intentionally thrown overboard a ship in order to save the ship, and which things thrown over then sink.
Jihad
A tenet of Islamic law to adherents, with the reward of eternal life in Paradise, if they promote and exhort the word of Muhammad and the Koran to others, and not necessarily excluding the use of violence.
Joint Affidavit
An affidavit sworn by two or more persons.
Joint and Several Liability
Liability of more than one person for which each person is liable to pay back the entire amount of a debt or damages.
Joint Custody
A child custody Court decision that both parents share joint legal custody and joint physical custody.
Joint Tenancy
When two or more persons are equally owners of some property.
Joint Venture
A legal relationship among individuals or corporations to invest or apply other resources, for some common purpose.
Jones Act
A section of a 1920 American law which gave injured sailors, or their estate, the right to sue the employer if the injury or death resulted from the employer's negligence.
Joyce Model of Joint Guardianship
A British Columbia model of joint guardianship in respect to children as between separated parents.
Judex
A form of judge in early Roman law.
Judgment
A decision given by a court of law.
Judgment Creditor
Any person entitled to enforce a judgment against another.
Judgment Debtor
A person against whom a judgment in money (eg. damages) has been obtained.
Judicial Branch
A branch of government; judges.
Judicial Discretion
The power the law gives the Court or a judge to choose among two or more alternatives, each being lawful.
Judicial Immunity
Absolute immunity from civil liability for official decisions or acts.
Judicial Independence
That judges are not subject to pressure and influence, and are free to make impartial decisions based solely on fact and law.
Judicial Interim Release
Pre-trial release of an individual accused of a crime; bail.
Judicial Lien
A lien obtained by judgment or other judicial proceeding.
Judicial Misconduct
Conduct on the part of a judge that is prohibited and which could lead to a form of discipline.
Judicial Notice
A doctrine which enables a judge to accept a fact without the need of a party to prove it through evidence.
Judicial Proceeding
Procedurals and hearings before a court, or a tribunal or administrative board that performs a judicial function
Judicial Review
A process where a court of law is asked to rule on the appropriateness of the decision of an administrative agency or tribunal.
Jura Regalia
Rights which belong to the Crown or to the Government.
Jurat
The written certification by a judicial officer that a deponent or affiant recognizes and endorses all parts of an affidavit he or she proposes to sign, and confirms that an oath has been administered in this regard to the affiant.
Jure
Latin: by right, under legal authority.
Jure Coronae
A right of the Crown.
Jure Gestionis
The private or commercial acts of a state.
Jure Imperii
Latin: imperial authority.
Jurisdiction
Legal authority to judge or to act in a given situation or case.
Jurisprudence
Case law, or the legal decisions which have developed and which accompany statutes in applying the law against situations of fact.
Juristic Reason
An explanation based upon law for the enrichment of one at the detriment of another.
Juris Utriusque Doctor
Latin: a combined law degree, in both civil and canon law.
Juror
A member of a jury; a person who has taken an oath to serve on a jury.
Jury
A group of citizens randomly selected from the general population and brought together to assist justice by deciding which version, in their opinion, constitutes 'the truth' given different evidence by opposing parties.
Jury Nullification
The extraordinary power of a jury to issue a verdict contrary to the law as applied to the proven facts.
Jury Secrecy Rule
A rule of law which prohibits the disclosure, by a member of a jury, of statements or opinions voiced during jury deliberations.
Jury Tampering
To unlawfully disrupt the independence of a jury member with a view to influencing that juror otherwise than by the production of evidence in open court.
Jus
Latin: the law or a legal right.
Jus Ad Bellum
Latin: the legal authority to wage war.
Jus Cogens
Latin: peremptory law.
Jus Detractus
Latin: The right to deduct.
Jus Disponendi
Latin: The right to dispose of a thing.
Jus Dispositivum
Law adopted by consent.
Jus Ex Injuria Non Oritur
Latin: a legal right or entitlement cannot arise from an unlawful act or omission.
Jus Publicum
Latin: legal rights enjoyed by all citizens; more recently used in reference to the right of the public to access shorelines for fishing, boating, swimming, water skiing and other related purposes.
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