Duhaime's Law Dictionary

P
Legal definitions for terms and concepts beginning with P

Pederasty
A sexual abuse crime wherein an adult male grooms and sexually assaults an adolescent male outside of his family.
Pedestrian
An individual travelling on foot.
Pedophile
A medical condition causing a sexual preference for young children.
Peerage
An artificial dignity associated with nobility, such as an earldom.
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing
The downloading of a computer file to a user's computer, using software, which then allows the user to make the file available to other users, other "peers".
Penal Code
A statute which lists and defines prohibited conduct (crimes) and the punishments associated with each.
Pendente Lite
Latin: during litigation.
Penile Plethysmograph
A law investigation device which purports to measures the reaction of a target's penis to visual stimuli.
Pennsylvania Rule
An rule of maritime law that if a ship is in some violation of a navigation statute at the time of a collision, she is presumed to be at fault.
Pen Register
An electronic surveillance device which attaches to a phone line and which registers every number dialed from a specific telephone.
Pension
A private or government fund (or payments therefrom), from which intermittent and regular benefits or allowances are paid to a person upon his or her retirement or disability.
Peonage
Compulsory service in payment of a debt.
Per Capita
Latin: by the head.
Percolating Water
Water which seeps or filters through the ground without any definite channel and not part of the flow of any waterway (eg. rain water).
Per Curiam
Latin: on behalf of the court.
Peremption
A period of time fixed by law for the existence of a right.
Peremptory
Final or absolute; not open to challenge.
Peremptory Challenge
Also "preemptory challenge"; a party's challenge of a prospective juror for which no reason or justification need be given.
Perfidy
The intentional violation of a promise or of some trust, such as misusing a flag of truce during war in order to facilitate an attack.
Performance Bond
A contract wherein a third-party, in exchange for a fee, secures another's fulfillment of a contract or performance of a duty.
Periculo Petentis
At the risk of the perpetrator.
Peril of the Sea
Damage to property occurring as a result of an accident at sea.
Per Incuriam
Latin: through want of care.
Per Infortunium
Latin: by misadventure.
Perjury
An intentional lie given while under oath or in a sworn affidavit.
Permanent Resident
An individual who has status in a country usually less than citizenship but more than just a visitor.
Permanent Unconscious Condition
An incurable and irreversible condition in which the individual is medically assessed as having no reasonable probability of recovery from an irreversible coma or a permanent vegetative state.
Permissive Waste
The failure of a possessor of a thing to exercise the care of a reasonable person to preserve and protect the estate for future interests.
Perpetual Injunction
A permanent injunction.
Perpetuating Testimony
A mechanism for preserving testimony prior to litigation.
Perpetuity
Forever; of unlimited duration.
Per Quod Consortium Amisit
Latin: whereby he loses the company of his wife.
Per Se
Latin: of itself.
Per Se Doctrine
A rule of antitrust law: that interference with the setting of prices by free market forces is unlawful per se, prima facie.
Persistent Vegetative State
No consciousness (comatose) and no possibility of recovery.
Person
An entity recognized by the law as separate and independent, with legal rights and existence including the ability to sue and be sued, to sign contracts, to receive gifts, to appear in court either by themselves or by lawyer and, generally, other powers incidental to the full expression of the entity in law.
Personal Email
An email sent by an employee within an employer's server but which serve no business purpose.
Personal Indignities
When one spouse has offered such indignities to the other spouse as to render his or her condition in life intolerable.
Personal Information
Information that identifies or describes an individual.
Personal Injury
Injury to the natural body of a person.
Personal Interest
An interest in either the subject matter or a relationship with the parties before a judicial body.
Personality Disorder
A group of disruptive personality traits which become evident by adolescence or early adulthood.
Personal Jurisdiction
The court's authority to determine a claim affecting a specific person.
Personal Knowledge
Something a witness actually saw or heard.
Personal Living Expenses
Expenses reasonably necessary to maintain health and well-being, to enjoy life's activities, and the capacity to earn money.
Personal Property
Chattels, goods, property other than real property.
Personal Rehabilitation
(USA-family law) The restoration of a parent to a formerly held constructive and useful role as a parent within a reasonable time.
Personal Representative
The person who administers the estate of a deceased person as executor or Court-appointed administrator.
Personal Service
Service of a court document directly to an individual.
Personal Services Contract
A contract in which the skills or talents of a party are material.
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