Duhaime's Law Dictionary

P
Legal definitions for terms and concepts beginning with P

Pacta Sunt Servanda
Latin: agreements must be kept.
Pain and Suffering
Pain and other forms of distress caused by another's tort.
Pain Pump
A disposable, portable, non-electronic device that systematically infuses an anaesthetic through an implanted catheter.
Palimony
A judicial award of spousal support or compensation for services, money, and goods contributed during a longterm nonmarital relationship.
Palpable Error
A standard of appellate review, an error that is readily or plainly seen.
Panhandle
To beg for money in a public place.
Paralegal
A person who is not a lawyer or is not acting in that capacity but who provides a limited number of legal services under the supervision of a lawyer.
Parallel Parenting
A form of custody and guardianship order in which such authority transfers from parent to parent as the children are exchanged.
Parasomnia
Sudden unexplained arousal from sleep, sometimes combined with sleep-walking or hand gestures or other bizarre activities.
Pardon
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person who has been convicted of a crime, to be free and absolved of that conviction, as if never convicted.
Parens Patriae
Latin: literally, father of the country. Refers to the inherent jurisdiction of the courts to make decisions concerning people who are not able to take care of themselves.
Parent
Father or mother or as otherwise may be defined by statute such as through adoption or same-sex relationships. Also, the controlling corporation of another.
Parental Alienation
A form of emotional child abuse where a custodial parent belittles or vilifies the other parent to the child.
Parentelic
Lineal; an intestate estate distribution that promotes lineal descendants.
Pari Delicto
Latin: of equal fault.
Pari Passu
Latin: Equitably and without preference.
Park
An area of land set aside for passive common use, where certain types of activities are restricted, to permit individuals to escape the intensity of urban life.
Parliament
The aggregate or assembly of institutions that comprise the legislative apparatus of government in democratic societies.
Parliamentary Law
Rules of deliberative bodies by which their procedure is regulated.
Parliamentary Supremacy
A peremptory rule of constitutional law which gives the legislative branch of government to set the law, as opposed to the judicial branch (the courts).
Parole
A conditional release from incarceration during which a prisoner promises to heed certain conditions (usually set by a parole board) and submit to the supervision of a parole officer.
Parol Evidence Rule
Verbal evidence is inadmissible to vary or contradict the terms of a written agreement.
Parricide
Killing one's father or another a family member or close relative.
Particulars
The material facts which a party to litigation alleges are true and which that party will seek to prove at trial in support of the relief claimed.
Partnership
An organization in which two or more persons carry on a business together.
Party and Party Costs
The standard award of costs being, in the result, a partial indemnity to the successful party to litigation for his or her litigation expenses.
Party Litigant
Scotland - a party to litigation who self-represents, without benefit of solicitor or barrister in court or on the record.
Party Wall
A partition wall; a dividing wall which separates two adjoining real properties.
Par Value Shares
Shares of equal value; issued by a company which have a common stated price.
Passing Of Accounts
The formal presentation of a trustee's accounts to a court for approval.
Passing-Off
Making some false representation likely to induce a person to believe that the goods or services are those of another.
Passive Euthanasia
Intentionally withholding a life-saving medical procedure so as to not artificially prevent death.
Passport
A document issued in the name of a government vouching for the citizenship of an identified individual.
Past Recollection Recorded
An exception to the hearsay rule, whereby evidence of which a witness has no current recall can nonetheless be admitted for the truth of its contents as it was recorded at a time when the witness was able to verify its accuracy.
Patent
An exclusive privilege granted to an inventor to make, use or sale an invention for a set number of years.
Patentee
A person to whom a patent has been granted; who appears on the official government registry as the patent owner.
Patently Unreasonable
A decision that is clearly irrational; evidently not in accordance with reason.
Pater est quem nuptiae demonstrant
Latin: The father is he who is married to the mother.
Paternity
Being a father.
Pathologist
Medical doctors who practice pathology; determine through laboratory medicine the causes of tissue disease.
Pathology
Laboratory medicine; that branch of medicine that studies diseases, their causes and effects.
Patrimony
Civil law: the aggregate of things owned by a person.
Patrocinium
A contract under Roman law where a man agrees to be another's servant in exchange for food and shelter.
Paulian Action
Civil law: a claim by a creditor against a third party to rescind any transfer of property made to the third party by the debtor done to frustrate enforcement of the creditor's debt.
Pauper's Oath
An affidavit of indigence, of poverty.
Payee
The person to whom payment is addressed or given.
Payor
The person who makes required payment(s).
Peace Bond
A recognizance entered into by an individual in which he commits himself to keep the peace and be of good behaviour, and other conditions, for a specified period of time.
Peace Officer
Law enforcement officer; person empowered to make arrests; police officer.
Peccatum illud horribile, inter Christianos non nominandum
Latin: that horrible crime not to be named among Christians.
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