Duhaime's Law Dictionary

R
Legal definitions for terms and concepts beginning with R

Racial Pollution
A prohibition of sexual relations with persons outside of defined races.
Racial Profiling
Targeting of individual members of a particular racial group, on the basis of the supposed propensity of the entire group.
Racism
Superiority-based ideology which discriminates individuals or a group, based on their immutable characteristic of race.
Rack
A medieval form of punishment or confession extractor in which the subject was affixed to a wooden platform and separate ropes attached to each of his four limbs, which were then pulled apart by a system of pulleys.
Racketeering
The interfering with trade or commerce by violence or threats.
Rand Formula
(CAN) Union dues are withheld from the pay of an employee, whether or not he or she belongs to the union.
Ransom
Money paid to have a kidnapped person released.
Rape
Sex with a woman, other than the perpetrator's wife, without her consent.
Rapina
Latin: to take away forcefully.
Ratification
The act by a principal, after the agent has acted, confirming that what the agent may have done without authority, is binding on the principal.
Ratio Decidendi
Latin: reasons for a decision.
Ratione Loci
Latin: by reason of the place.
Ratione Personae
Latin: by reason of his person.
Ratione Soli
Latin: In relation to territory, land.
Real Estate
Same as real property; land and rights attached to land.
Real Obligation
A legal obligation associated with real property.
Real Property
A property interest in land.
Reasonable Doubt
A threshold of proof in criminal cases in most modern criminal law systems which requires the trier of fact to be sure, not certain, of the accused's guilt, before convicting.
Reasonable Man
An ethereal concept of an average person and his/her conduct, against which the actions of another is weighed.
Reasons
The legal rationale behind a court's judgment, expressed verbally or in writing.
Rebus Sic Stantibus
Latin: changed circumstances.
Rebuttable Presumption
A presumption of fact which can be defeated by persuasive evidence to the contrary.
Receipt
A document which acknowledges the delivery of a thing or the payment of money.
Reciprocity
A term of international treaties by which two or more states agree to extend to the other's citizens specified legal rights on the same standing as its own citizens.
Recommendation
Advice or counsel which although presented as such, the recipient is free to take or leave, or which may be binding in the context.
Reconciliation
The act of separated spouses returning to family cohabitation.
Reconvention
A rule of jurisdiction which enables a counterclaim against another who, although otherwise beyond the jurisdiction of the court, has voluntarily submitted to jurisdiction by iniating the principal action.
Recorder
An ancient judicial position in the legal history of England and Wales, now mostly a part-time judicial appointment given to practising barristers or solicitors in England and Wales.
Recoupment
A rebate of a debt or claim because of a right of the debtor arising out of the same transaction.
Recross Examination
The resumption of cross-examination by the original cross-examiner in order to respond to matters that may have arisen during the re-examination of a witness.
Rectal Prolapse
A medical condition in which the lower end of the bowel (the rectum) falls or pops out of the anus.
Recusation
An application made to a judge that he/she not hear a particular case because of a real or perceived conflict of interest; that the judge recuse himself (abstain) from the case.
Redact
Removing text or images from an original document.
Reddendum
Latin: that part of a lease which sets out the amount of rent and when it is payable.
Redemption
Reverting title to property.
Red Herring
An irrelevant legal issue.
Redirect Examination
The re-opening of an examination-in-chief after cross-examination, to cover matters that may have arisen during cross-examination.
Red test
Referendum
The putting of a question of proposed law to popular vote of the people.
Refoulement
The return of an alleged refugee to his state of origin.
Refugee
A person who is outside his state of origin or of residence, and cannot return for fear of human-rights related persecution.
Regiam Majestatem
An ancient compendium of Scottish law; circa 1320.
Regicide
The murder of a member of a royal family.
Regrating
The buying of food products at a market not for demonstrable personal need, but for the purposes of resale at the same market, or one nearby.
Regulation
A law on some point of detail, supported by an enabling statute, and issued not by a legislative body but by an executive branch of government.
Relator
An informer; a person who has supplied the facts required for a criminal prosecution or a civil suit, or who institutes legal action on behalf of the government.
Release
A with prejudice concession made by a party to give up all claims in regards to an alleged tort or contract.
Religion
Faith and worship in a god.
Remainder
A right to future enjoyment or ownership of real property.
Remainderman
The individual who, in a trust such as an estate,, stands to take the final residue, whatever is remaining once the trusts have all been satisfied.
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