Duhaime's Law Dictionary

Legal definitions for terms and concepts beginning with P

Personal Trip
A trip which would have been made in spite of the failure or absence of the business purpose and would have been dropped in the event of failure of the private purpose, though the business errand remained undone.
Personal property.
Personal Use
Non-business use.
Persona Non Grata
Latin: an unwelcome person. A diplomat who is no longer welcome to the government to which he is accredited.
Personnel File
An employer's folder of employee records collected in regards to qualifications, promotion, transfer, compensation or disciplinary action.
Per Stirpes
Latin: by the plant.
Per Tout Et Non My
French: as to the whole and not just a part.
Perverse Verdict
A decision of a jury which runs altogether contrary to the evidence presented before it.
Petite Policy
A policy of the US Justice Department that following a state prosecution there should be no federal prosecution for the same transaction in the absence of compelling federal interests.
The formal, written document submitted to a court, and which asks for the court to redress what is described in the petition as being an injustice of some kind.
Petitory Suit
An action in maritime law in which a person seeks to obtain a judgment as to title of a vessel independently of possession.
Petit Treason
Treason by a servant against his master or a wife against her husband
An inferior lawyer.
Petty Offense
A minor crime and for which the punishment is usually just a small fine or short term of imprisonment.
Phillips v Eyre, Rule in
When a tort has been committed on foreign soil, it cannot be brought on home soil unless it was actionable if it had of occurred on home soil, and without legal justification at the place it occurred.
Material object in which sounds are fixed and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated.
A medical doctor, muscle and bone specialist, who diagnoses and treats disorders that may produce temporary or permanent impairment.
Physical Care
A variant of child custody distinguished in some jurisdictions as the mere right to maintain a home for the minor child and provide for his/her routine care.
Physical Control
Having the means to initiate any movement of, and in close proximity to the operating controls of a vehicle.
Physical Cruelty
Family law, grounds for divorce, cruelty which is physical in nature and which renders continued cohabitation intolerable.
Physical Custody
The right to organize and administer the day to day care of a child or a thing.
Physical Force
Power, violence, or pressure directed against an individual consisting in a physical act.
Pia Causa
Latin: charitable purposes.
To surround the entrance of a business or agency and encourage patrons to boycott it or to otherwise negatively call attention to it.
Piecemeal Litigation
Circumstances in which more than one court is seized of the adjudication of the same issue.
A structure extending from shore into navigable water to afford passage to and from vessels.
Piercing the Corporate Veil
To hold a corporate entity liable for the acts of a separate, related entity.
Pierringer Release
A proportionate share settlement agreement
A medieval punishment and restraining device made of moveable and adjustable boards through which a prisoner's head or limbs were pinned.
Pinkerton Doctine
(USA) The conviction of a conspirator for criminal offenses committed by a co-conspirator that are within the scope of the conspiracy or in furtherance of it, and are reasonably foreseeable as a necessary or natural consequence of the conspiracy.
Piracy (Intellectual Property)
Unauthorized duplication of an matter protected by intellectual property.
Piracy Jure Gentium
Piracy according to the law of nations.
Piracy (Maritime Law)
Violence or depredation on the high seas or in the air, for private ends, using aircraft or vessels.
A person who engages in piracy.
Pit Bull
Dogs which exhibit appearance and physical characteristics of any of a pit bull terrier or Staffordshire, American or American Staffordshire bull terrier.
Place of Operations Test
A judicial analysis used to determine a corporation's real place of business which prioritizes the venue of corporate activities.
Place of the Wrong
A selection of a venue to serve as the nexus of a tort when the tort evolves from a series of events, and for the purposes of establishing liability that may flow from the alleged tort.
The representation of the work of others as one's own.
Plain Error
Limited grounds upon which an appeal alleging deficient jury instructions will be allowed, which were not objected to at the time they were presented to the jury: the error must be so obvious or serious that the public reputation and integrity of the judicial proceeding is impaired.
Plain Feel Doctrine
If, during a lawful pat-down search, an officer feels an object whose mass makes it immediately identifiable as contraband, that officer can seize the item.
Plain Meaning Rule
A rule of interpretation that where the plain meaning of a statute is apparent, there is no room for interpretation.
The person who initiates, who brings or files a case with a court; who sues.
Plain View Doctrine
The authority for law enforcement officers, otherwise lawfully upon premises gut not armed with a search warrant, to seize any item within their line of sight and reasonably believed to be related to the commission of a crime
A subdivision map prepared for approval by a governmental authority.
Plea Bargaining
Negotiations during a criminal trial in which the accused agrees to admit to a smaller crime in exchange for which the prosecutor agrees to ask for a more lenient sentence than would have been recommended if the original charge had of been proceeded with.
A now defunct paralegal office in England which allowed licensed non-lawyer individuals to draft pleadings.
That core document(s) of a party to litigation in which he or she formally sets out the facts and the law which support that party's position.
Plea to the Jurisdiction
A preliminary challenge to a court's authority to decide the action before it.
The submission of a legislative proposal to the vote of the people.
Plene Administravit
Latin for administration (is) complete.
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