Duhaime's Law Dictionary

Juris Utriusque Doctor Definition:

Latin: a combined law degree, in both civil and canon law.

Related Terms: J. D.

As Roman law slowly evolved into modern civil law, (culminating in the 1804 Civil Code of France), the European kingdoms allowed canon law and ecclesiastic legal theories to permeate the body of public law.

This, as the emerging states slowly, and sometimes suddenly and violently distilled from partial theocracies and monarchies, to republics and democracies.

But to be an effective and knowledgeable lawyer in some European kingdoms of medieval and post-medieval eras, a law student had to be versant not only in the Corpus Juris Civilis, but also in canon law.

European law schools, mostly Italian and French universities began offering combined degrees in the civil law and canon law, called a J.U.D., short for Juris Utriusque Doctor or doctorate in “both laws” (civil and canon).


  • Merryman, J., The Civil Law Tradition (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1969), page 12.

Categories & Topics:

Always looking up definitions? Save time with our search provider (modern browsers only)

If you find an error or omission in Duhaime's Law Dictionary, or if you have suggestion for a legal term, we'd love to hear from you!